A lot of progress has been made in the field of immune-oncology specifically in NSCLC and small cell lung cancers in the recent years. The major unmet need especially in this region would be lack of accessibility due to prohibitive cost to majority of lung cancer patients in public hospitals. Putting aside this limitation, one the biggest unmet need would be effective second line treatment after patient progress on standard immunotherapy-based agents. Other unmet needs include the role of immunotherapy in NSCLC with driver mutation, post-targeted therapy space and the best way to utilise immunotherapy in earlier stage lung cancer. I will be exploring and covering the current practice relating to immune-oncology and the ‘unmet need’ in my talk.