The ERS International Congress 2022 held in Barcelona offered the chance to present and discuss a large number of sleep medicine-centred topics of utmost research and clinical interest. Hereby a brief overview on this content will be presented. New diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic approaches have been discussed, with the aim of better endo- and phenotyping sleep apnoea patients – e.g. with genomics, proteomics and new indexes like pulse wave amplitude drop (PWAD) and respiratory effort. In this framework, the crucial methodological aspects of future clinical trials validating these new predictors and integrating them with the already assessed indexes has been discussed. Moreover, the available evidence on current and future potential pharmacological strategies has been presented, including the pharmacological management of obesity in order to reduce an independent cardiovascular factor and a structural factor promoting obstructive sleep apnoea. Furthermore, another topic of great research interest, intermittent hypoxia, has been thoroughly discussed as key feature of different apnoea and hypopnoea syndromes, from its systemic role in inflammation and cardiovascular risk increase to its relation with cognitive decline and tumorigenesis. Another broad thematic area has been the therapeutic approach to different sleep disordered breathing conditions, like central sleep apnoea and obesity hypoventilation syndrome, and the importance of a multidisciplinary strategy, which nowadays should include e-health applications as well.