Active TB in children is usually paucibacillary and diagnosis could be challenging. The presentation mimics common childhood illnesses. Household TB contact history is helpful in diagnosis of TB in children. A good respiratory specimen either induced sputum or gastric aspirate is needed for the diagnosis of pulmonary TB in children. Children TB drug dosage is different from adults. Serial weighing important and dose adjustment needed during follow up.
Young children living in close contact with a case of smear-positive PTB are at HIGH risk of TB infection and disease. Active TB must be excluded before children are treated for latent TB infection. A shorter but effective regime is preferred for the treatment of LTBI in children. All children with LTBI (treated or not) need to be followed up for at least 2 years for possible risk of developing active TB.